sinead (shmoooky) wrote in exam_panic_zomg,
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shmoooky
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Music notes

These is kinda pointless for GCSE-this-year people, but I might as well not let my notes go to waste, specially if someone is doing Music GCSE next year.



Set Works:


1. HANDEL - La Rejouissance (celebratory)
2. FANSHAWE - African Sanctus (celebratory)
3. QUEEN (FREDDIE MERCURY) - We Are The Champions (celebratory)
4. SCHUBERT - Trout Quintet (theme & variation)
5. KURT WEILL(♥!) / ELLA FITZGERALD - Mackie Messer/Mack the Knife (arrangement)
6. ? - Bucks of Oranmore (musical traditions of ireland & scotland)
7. DONAL LUNNY - April 3rd (musical traditions of ireland & scotland)
8. FIELD MONTGOMERY MARSHALL PIPE BAND - March, Strathspey, Reel (m.t.o.i.s)
9. HARTY (IRISH SYMPHONY) - Fair Day (m.t.o.i.s)

1. Handel – La Rejouissance



  • La Rejouissance is a celebratory piece, written by George Friederich Handel for the King’s Royal Fireworks ceremony.

  • It is the 4th movement of the 5 movement symphony.

  • It is from the Baroque period (1600 – 1750).

  • It is written for an outside ceremony, so uses louder instruments such as cavalry drums and horns.

  • The piece is terraced, traditional to the Baroque period. This means that there are only piano and forte as dynamics.

  • In the inside version of the piece, the main instrument is strings or woodwind (varies), but there is a continual harpsichord throughout to harmonise the piece- harpsichords being traditional Baroque instruments.

  • The piece is in D major – another tradition of the Baroque period; this is because Baroque orchestras used non-chromatic brass instruments (could only play one note)

  • The melody is based on the tonic triad of D major.

Structure:


Bar 2 - Imitation in 2nd oboe/trumpet.
Bar 4 - Repetition, triad.
Bar 5 - Imperfect cadence.
Bar 7 - Imitation of rhythm in bass, repetition.
Bars 13 & 14 - Repetition a 4th higher.
Bar 15 - Syncopation and descending sequence.
Bars 17 & 18 - Ascending sequence.
Bar 19 - Dotted rhythms (fanfare - device of Baroque).
END - Perfect cadence in tonic.



2. Fanshawe - African Sanctus



  • It is cuntropuntal (different things moving at different times)

  • It is homophonic - there is a singing of different tunes together.

  • The African dance is a Bwala dance by the Acholi tribe.

  • The Sanctus is a Christian (Roman) celebtration of God (latin).

  • It contains African instruments (e.g. kettle drums, kongas etc.)

  • Piano is used as percussion rather than melody.

  • The piece is deliberately multicultural.

  • Sanctus, meaning Holy, has two meanings. African Sanctus could mean a Sanctus piece that is African, or can mean Holy Africa. It shows the idea of there being one God, and that religious status is unimportant.


Structure:


A - Sanctus and percussion only, words split to fit tune (i.e. 'tu-hu-hus', 'eh-he-hel-sis')
B - Bwala dance only, rock beat superimposed (drum kit and bass guitar), increased tempo.
C - Superimposition of Sanctus over Bwala dance, increased tempo further.



3. Queen - We Are The Champions (¬_¬)



  • Nothing really special about this piece. It was written by Freddie Mercury.
  • It's strophic - has the same verse and chorus.
  • Binary form I THINK. Don't hold me to that one.



Structure:

Verse 1 - Begins in C minor. Solo Mercury here. And piano. He's only solo for four lines of the verse, where the tune modulates to Eb major and an electric guitar comes in. After 3 lines of this, it goes to Bb major and then goes to dominant. The bass comes in (bass guitar) as well as percussion (drum kit) and the big throngy (don't write that) electric guitar. The 'And I need to go on and on and on and on..' bit is multitracked for that distinctive Queen choir sound.

Chorus 1 - Begins in F major on the tonic. Every 3rd beat is emphasised. The first 'we are the champions' is in G minor, and the repeat is a 6th higher. The 'of the world' bit is reverberated.

Verse 2 - Before the vocals of the verse begin, there is a solo piano, and still is when Mercury starts singing. He tries to sing some line quicker to fit it in with the music, dramatic technique methinks. There is a build-up of electric guitar.

Chorus 2&3 - These choruses are basically the same as the other one, except the end of chorus 2 and the start of chorus 3 are overlapped. It ends on 'cause we are the champions...' as a technique of suspense. I can never stand that, personally.



4. Schubert - The Trout



  • There are 5 variations to this piece. Insanity.
  • It was written in 1819.
  • Any trills are to mimic the fish swimming.
  • There are lyrics - you don't need them.
  • It's in binary form (AB)
  • It's in common time (4/4)


Theme



  • The violin carries the tune.
  • There is a violin 2, a viola and a violincello for harmony.
  • It has a slow tempo.


Variation 1



  • The infamous quintet! It has a piano instead of another violin, unusual for a quintet.
  • The piano carries the tune.
  • The viola plays dispatched chords (ascending then descending) and the cello imitates.
  • The double bass plays staccato arpeggios.
  • This one is relatively quick. Allegro, I'd say.


Variation 2



  • The viola and cello carry the tune.
  • The violin counters the tune, and is highly decorated.
  • The piano does repititions.
  • It has a slow tempo.


Variation 3



  • The cello and double bass carry the tune.
  • The piano is just a decorative harmoniser.
  • The violin is the harmony.
  • This one's fast.


Variation 4



  • The minor one!! ^__________^
  • The violin is an alteration of the tune, ff!!
  • The piano is harmonising chords.
  • The cello and bass carry the tune.
  • B is major, and modulates to minor in the 2nd half.
  • It ends diminuendo and legato.


Variation 5



  • The violin carries the tune, but at the 2nd half the cello carries it.
  • At B, the violin carries the tune until the repeat where it switches to cello.
  • When the violin has the tune, the piano harmonises.
  • When the cello has the tune, the violin harmonises.
  • When they both have the tune at the end, the piano harmonises.
  • The double bass retains a steady beat throughout.
  • The piece ends diminuendo.



5. Ella Fitzgerald - Mack the Knife



  • Kurt Weill is the GREATEST. ♥♥♥♥♥

  • The piece was originally called Mackie Messer, and was in German.

  • It's from Kurt Weill's 3 Penny Opera (Drei Pfennig Oper). Teacher won't tell you
    that =] but it was on the exam.

  • The tune was written by Kurt Weill, and the words by Bertholt Brecht about the big guy himself, Hitler.

  • The arrangement we were given is by Ella Fitzgerald, and will most likely be on the paper if Mack the Knife is on your exam. You might get the Frank Sinatra version, or some other jazz artist.

  • The tune itself is in tonic triads, and changes to other triads throughout.

  • It is in C major (the original).



6. Bucks of Oranmore



  • This is a reel.
  • Irish traditional music is originated from Baroque, and has Baroque thinnngs.
  • It's in binary form (Baroque)
  • It's in D major (Baroque)
  • It's got simple keys, repititions and decorations (Baroque).
  • It has harmony, which is strange for a traditional piece as they are usually monodic (no harmony).
  • Interpretation of dynamics and ornamentation is left up to the discretion of the musician.


Instrumentation:


  • Fiddle;
  • Harp;
  • Flute;
  • Wooden flute;
  • Tin whistle;
  • Accordion;
  • Uileann pipes;
  • Bagpipes;
  • Concertina (drone);
  • Bazouki (greek, 8 metal-stringed guitar) (harmony);
  • Bodhran;
  • Double bass (harmony).


9. Harty - Fair Day



  • This is a reel.
  • Harty is an early 20th century writer.
  • Harty wrote programmatic music (with story).
  • This is a 2nd movement from a 4 movement symphony.
  • THe symphony order is reversed - the second movement is a scherzo instead of the 3rd. Scherzo is the light, fast, happy section of a symphony.



Structure:


Sonatas have 3 themes:

1. Exposition - 2 sections (1 is tonic, 2nd is dominant)
2. Development - 2 sections (varying keys)
3. Recapitulation - 2 sections (1 is tonic, 2nd is tonic)

They usually have a musical link between them.

Theme 1 - The 1st phrase is 'Blackberry Blossom' on flute. The second phrase is the tune on violin and woodwind. It then imitates the tune classically and changes the key, fully orchestrated.

[LINK - flute]

Theme 2 - The first phrase is 'The Girl I Left Behind Me' on flute, piccolo and mute trumpet. It's got a dim snare drum and bass drum that you can't really hear. The second phrase is a repeat on woodwind. Then there is a development of the 'Blackberry Blossom', much heavier on brass instruments with set decorations (decoration is usually left up to discretion of player). Then there is an imitation of the second phrase.

[LINK - can't remember]

Theme 3 - 'Blackberry Blossom' on xylophone over a Bb 7th chord. It is then fully orchestrated, with snippets of both melodies. It then breaks into horns and tuba, then strings and woodwind (semiquavers). It gets faster, ascends the scales, and then has a very abrupt, light ending :).





REEL -

  • 4/4 time;
  • Traditionally Scottish, adapted by Irish;
  • Mostly quavers;
  • Heavy-light pattern (pairs);
  • Steady tempo;
  • Example: 'Swing your partner, to and fro' (I swear!! XD)


POLKA -

  • 2/4 time;
  • Traditionally Scandanavian;
  • Fast;
  • March-like;
  • Example: Kerry polka


JIG -

Single Jig -

  • 3/8 time;
  • heavy-light pairs


Double Jig -

  • 6/8 time;
  • single groups per bar;
  • 1st note longer than others


Slip Jig - (think of it as triple)

  • 9/8 time;
  • single groups per bar;
  • heavy-light pairs


Slide - (think of it as quadruple)

  • 12/8 time;
  • 1st note emphasised;
  • Fast;
  • Heavy-light pairs/triplets/sextuplets (depending on tempo);
  • Think of the Dresden Dolls version, except fast :)


MARCH -

  • 4/4 time;
  • Steady beat;
  • No ornamentation or dynamics;
  • Will sound Scottish, or at least very formal.


STRATHSPEY -

  • Scot snap rhythm;
  • Mixure between Reel and March


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